Sources, & Newspapers
Gandhi Archives, Museums, and Libraries in India
At the National Archives of India in
New Delhi, we consulted the Guide to the Records in the National
Archives, New Delhi, 1980. This guide listed eight categories of
records, among them the records of the following departments: Home,
Revenue, Foreign, and Agriculture. Each one of these had an index.
The Home and Foreign department records had a few relevant records.
In the first we examined the following years: 1858-64, 1868, 1869,
1870, 1871, 1871-75, 1876-80, 1872, 1873, 1875, 1905, 1911, and
1914. In the Foreign department series, we examined selectively from
1875 to 1913, but found little that was directly relevant to our
study. However, there was some very useful information in the
Private Archives section in the following sets of papers: Gandhi-Kallenbach
Papers, Gandhi-Polak Papers, Gokhale Papers, Pyerelal Papers, and C.F. Andrews Papers.
At the National Gandhi Museum and
Library in New Delhi, we searched through the card index of letters
to Gandhi. In addition, we examined the new material presented in
the most recent publications of the Collected Works of Mahatma
Gandhi. The last seven supplementary volumes appeared between
1989 and 1994. Volume 96 was relevant to our study as it contained
additional correspondence between Gandhi and Kallenbach. In volume
65, there is reference to his discovery in South Africa of selfless
service as "spiritual sadhana."
At the Sabarmati Ashram in Ahmedabad,
otherwise known as the Gandhi Smarak Sangrahalaya, we worked from a
40-page prepared list of material given to us by Mr. E. S. Reddy,
and found at least a dozen letters that were relevant to our study.
We also looked through SN (Serial Number) items of Gandhi’s
newspaper cuttings, which showed how meticulously he kept track of
events while in South Africa.
At the Natal
Archives Repository (NAR)
in Pietermaritzburg, we searched through the several
groups of sources with mixed results.
Indian Immigration (II)
did not have many direct references to cultural and religious
events. The focus in official records was rather on health, criminal
behavior, assaults, desertions, malingering, drunk and disorderly
conduct, withholding of rations and wages, cruelty, murder trials,
suicide, requests for passes, and depositions of various other
kinds. There were numerous cases of abuses by owners, and workers
who took the initiative to file complaints especially during the
1900s. We found some useful material in the Colonial
Secretary's Office (CSO) series. A search in
Secretary of Native Affairs (SNA) series revealed over 30
instances of Indo-African relations.
We also consulted the following series
at the NAR: Surveyor General's Office (SGO), Attorney General's
Office (AGO), Chief Native Commissioner (CNC), Immigration
Restrictions Department (IRD), Natal Government Railways (NGR),
and a variety of others like 1/EPI (Magistrate and Commissioners,
Empangeni), 1/LDS (Magistrates and Commissioners, Ladysmith), MJPW
(Minister of Justice and Public Works), 3/PMB (Pietermaritzburg),
PWD (Public Works Department), DPH (Department of Public Health),
PVS (Principal Veterinary Surgeon), NT (Natal Treasury), and
NHD (Natal Harbour Department). Printed sources consulted for
this study included the Protector's Reports from the 1880s to
1911, Blue Books and their successors Statistical Year
There were several important sources
which provided a lens to Indian cultural and religious life. At the
Durban Local History Museum, we found some excellent photographs
that illustrated dress and attire for the early period. We found
photographs and assorted documents as they related to cultural and
religious organizations at the Gandhi-Luthuli Centre (formerly
Documentation Centre) at University of Durban-Westville. The
vernacular sections of Indian Opinion and African
Chronicle provided rich material on culture
Alter, Joseph S, Gandhi's Body:
Sex, Diet, and the Politics of Nationalism, Philadephia:
University of Pennsylvania Press, 2000.
Asad, Majda, Indian Muslim
Festivals and Customs, New Delhi: Publication Division,
Ministry of Information, Government of India, 1988.
Atkins, Keletso, The Moon is
Dead! Give Us Our Money!: The Cultural Origins of an African
Work Ethic, Natal, South Africa, 1843-1900, Portsmouth:
Badassy, Prinisha, Turban and Top
Hats: Indian Interpreters in the Colony of Natal, 1880-1910,
Honors Thesis, University of Natal, 2002.
Beall, J. D. and D. North-Coombes,
The 1913 Disturbances in Natal: The Social and Economic
Background to Passive Resistance,
Journal of Natal and Zulu History 6(1983):48-81.
Bhana, Surendra (ed), Essays on
Indentured Indians in Natal, Leeds: Peepal Tree Press,
Bhana, Surendra, Gandhi's
Legacy: The Natal Indian Congress, 1894-1994,
Pietermaritzburg: University of Natal Press, 1997.
Bhana, Surendra and B. Pachai (eds),
A Documentary History of Indian South Africans, 1860-1982,
Cape Town: David Philip, 1984.
Bhana, Surendra and J.B. Brain,
Setting Down Roots: Indian Migrants in South Africa,
1860-1911, Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press,
Bose, Nirmal Kumar, My Days
with Gandhi, New Delhi: Orient Longman, 1974.
Bose, Sugata and Ayesha Jalal,
Modern South Asia: History, Culture, Political Economy, New
York/London: Routledge, 1998.
Britton, Burnett, Gandhi Comes
to South Africa, Canton, Maine: Greenleaf Books, 1999.
Brown, Judith M. and Martin
Prozesky, (eds), Gandhi and South Africa: Principles and
Politics, Pietermaritzburg: University of Natal Press,
Burton, Antoinett, At the
Heart of Empire: Indians and the Colonial Rule Encounter in Late
Victorian Britain, Berkeley: University of California Press,
Chada, Yogesh, Gandhi: A Life,
New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1997.
Chatterjee, Margaret, Gandhi
and His Jewish Friends, London: Macmillan, 1992.
Chatterjee, Margaret, Gandhi's
Religious Thought, Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre
Dame Press, 1983.
Dalton, Dennis, Mahatma Gandhi:
Nonviolent Power in Action, New York: Columbia University
Desai, Ashwin, Vishnu Padayachee,
Krish Reddy, and Goolam Vahed, Blacks in Whites: A Century of
Cricket Struggles in KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg:
University of Natal Press, 2002.
Desai, Mahadev, "Kallenbach's
Visit to India," Harijan in the Weekly Letter
section, no date
Diesel, Alleyn and Patrick
Maxwell, Hinduism in Natal: A Brief Guide,
Pietermaritzburg: University of Natal Press, 1993.
Doke, Joseph J., Gandhi: An
Indian Patriot in South Africa, 1909.
Duminy, Andrew and Bill Guest (eds),
Natal and Zululand: From Earliest Times to 1910: A New
History, Pietermaritzburg: University of Natal Press, 1989.
Elphick, Richard and Rodney
Davenport (eds), Christianity in South Africa: A Political,
Social, and Cultural History, Berkeley: University of
California Press, 1997.
Fuller, C.J., The Camphor
Flame: Popular Hinduism and Society in India, Princeton, NJ:
Princeton University Press, 1992.
Gandhi, Arun and Sunanada Gandhi,
The Forgotten Woman: The Untold Story of Kastur, Wife
of Mahatma Gandhi, Huntsville, Arkansas: Zark Mountain
Gandhi Letters: From Upper
House to Lower House, 1906-1914, edited by Gillian Berning,
Durban: Local History Museum Education Series Number 4, 1994.
Gandhi, Manubehn, Bapu, My
Mother, Ahmedabad: Navajivan, 1949.
Gandhi, Manilal, "Memories of
Gandhiji," Indian Review (March 1952).
Gandhi, M.K., Hind Swaraj and
Other Writings, edited by Anthony J. Parel,
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
Gandhi, M.K., Hindu Dharma,
Ahmedabad: Navajivan, 1950.
Gandhi, M.K., Satyagraha in
South Africa, Ahmedabad: Navajivan, 1928.
Gandhi, M.K., The Story of My
Experiments with Truth, Boston: Beacon Press, 1993.
Gandhi, Prabhudas Chhaganlal,
Jivan-nu Parod, Ahmedbad: Navajivan, 1948.
Gandhi, Rajmohan, The Good
Boatman: A Portrait of Gandhi, New Delhi: Viking, 1995.
Gandhi, Rajmohan, Eight Lives:
A Study of Hindu-Muslim Encounter, New York: State
New York, 1986.
Golden Number of Indian
Opinion: Souvenir of the Passive Resistance Movement in
South Africa, 1906-1914, Phoenix, Durban, 1914.
Govinden, Herby S., “The Anglican
Church among Indians in KwaZulu-Natal,” M.A. Thesis, University
of Durban-Westville, December 2002.
Gupta, Shiv Kumar, Arya Samaj
and the Raj, 1875-1920, New Delhi: Gitanjali Publishing
Hasan, Mushirul, Nationalism
and Communal Politics in India, 1916-1928, Columbia, MO:
South Asia Books, 1979.
Hughes, Heather, Politics in
Inanda, Natal: Qadi under Chief Mqhawe, c. 1840-1906,
Doctoral Thesis, University of London, 1995.
Hunt, James D., Gandhi and the
Nonconformists: Encounters in South Africa, New
Delhi: Promilla & Co., 1986.
Hunt, James D., Gandhi in
London, revised ed., Springfield, VA: Nataraj Books, 1993.
Kumar, P. Pratap, Hindus in
South Africa: Their Traditions and Beliefs, Durban, 2000.
Lambert, John, Betrayed Trust:
Africans and the State in Colonial Natal, Pietermaritzburg,
University of Natal Press, 1995.
Mamdani, Mahmood, When Victims
Become Killers: Colonialism, Nativism, and Genocide in Rwanda,
Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001.
Meer, Fatima Apprenticeship of
a Mahatma, Durban: Phoenix Settlement Trust in 1970.
Meer, Fatima, Portraits of
Indian South Africans, Durban, 1969.
Meer, Fatima (ed), The South
African Gandhi: An Abstract of the Speeches and Writings of M.K. Gandhi, 1893-1914, Durban: Madiba Publishers, 1996.
Mehta, P. J., M.K. Gandhi and
the South African Indian Problem, Madras: G. A. Natesan &
Mikula, Paul, Brian Kearney, and
Rodney Harber, Traditional Hindu Temples in South Africa,
Minault, Gail, The Khilafat
Movement: Religious Symbolism and Political Mobilization in
India New York: Columbia University Press, 1982.
Morrell, Robert (ed), Political
Economy and Identities in KwaZulu-Natal: Historical and
Social Perspectives, Durban: Indicator Press, 1996.
Mujeeb, M., Indian Muslims,
McGill University Press, 1967.
Murthy, B. Srinivasa (ed),
Mahatma Gandhi and Leo Tolstoy Letters, Long Beach, CA: Long
Beach Publications, 1987.
Murugan, G., The Tamil Language in
Natal: A Socio-linguistic Study,
M. A. Thesis, University of Durban-Westville, 1994.
Nayar, Sushila, Mahatma
Gandhi: Satyagraha At Work, vol. 4, Ahmedabad:
Navajivan Publishing House, 1989.
Patel, Raojibhai M., The Making
of the Mahatma, (Based on Gandhiji-ni Sadhna),
Ahmedabad: Navajivan, 1990.
Parekh, Bhiku, Colonialism,
Tradition, and Reform: An Analysis of Gandhi's Political
Discourse, New Delhi: Sage Publications, 1989.
Prashad, Vijay, Everybody was
Kung fu fighting: Afro-Asian Connections and the Myth of
Cultural Purity, Boston: Beacon Press, 2001.
Odendaal, Andre, Black Protest
in South Africa to 1912, Totowa, NJ: Barnes & Noble, 1984.
Parekh, Bhiku, Gandhi,
Oxford University Press, 1997.
Parekh, Bhiku, Gandhi's
Political Philosophy: A Critical Examination, Notre Dame:
University of Notre Dame, 1989.
Parel, Anthony J., Gandhi's Idea
of Nation in Hind Swaraj, Gandhi Marg 13
Prasad, Nageshwar (ed), Hind
Swaraj: A Fresh Look, New Delhi: Gandhi Peace Foundation,
Polak, H.S.L., and Millie Graham Polak, "Gandhi, the Man," Indian Review, October 1929.
Polak, H.S.L., "South African
Reminiscences," Indian Review, Feb, Mar, May, 1925.
Polak, H.S.L., "South African
Reminiscence," Indian Review, October 1926.
Pyerelal, Mahatma Gandhi: The
Birth of Satyagraha, From Petitioning to Passive Resistance,
vol. 3, Ahmedabad: Navajivan, 1986.
Pyerelal, Mahatma Gandhi: The
Early Phase, Ahmedabad: Navajivan, 1965
Pyerelal, Mahatma Gandhi: The
Last Phase, Ahmedabad: Navajivan, 1958
Pyerelal, Mahatma Gandhi:
The Discovery of Satyagraha, On the Threshold, vol. 2,
Bombay: Sevak Prakashan, 1980.
Radhakrishnan, Sarvepalli (ed),
Mahatma Gandhi: Essay and Reflections on His Life and Work,
London: George Allen & Unwin, 1939.
Ramamurthi, T.G., Nonviolence
and Nationalism: A Study of Gandhian Mass Resistance in South
Africa, New Delhi, 1993.
Ramaswami, N.S., Temples of
South India, Madras: Maps & Agencies, 1984.
Reddy, E.S., Gandhiji's Vision
of a Free South Africa, New Delhi: Sanchar, 1995.
Ruskin, John, Unto This Last:
Four Essays on the First Principles of Political Economy,
London: George Allen, Sunnyside, Orpington, 1900.
Sadiq Ali, Shanti, ed., Gandhi
and South Africa, New Delhi: Hind Pocket Books, 1994.
Sarid, Isa and Christian Bartolf,
Hermann Kallenbach: Mahatma Gandhi's Friend in South
Africa, A Concise Biography, Selbstverlag, Germany:
Shukla, Chandrashanker (ed),
Incidents in Gandhiji's Life by Fifty-four Contributors,
Bombay: Vora & Co., 1949.
Shukla, Chandrashanker (ed),
Reminiscences of Gandhiji by Forty-Eight Contributors,
Mumbai: Vora & Company Publishers Ltd., 1951.
Swan, Maureen, Gandhi: The
South African Experience, Johannesburg: Ravan Press, 1985.
Tercheck, Ronald, Gandhi:
Struggling for Autonomy, Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield,
Thompson, Mark, Gandhi and His
Ashrams, Bombay: Popular Prakashan, 1993.
Uppal, J.N., Gandhi: Ordained
in South Africa, New Delhi: Publication Division of Ministry
of Information, Govt. of India, 1995.
Vahed, Goolam H., Swami
Shankeranand and the consolidation of Hinduism in Natal,
1908-1914", Journal for the Study of Religion,
10:2 (August 2002): 3-35.
Vedalanker, Nardev, Essential
Teachings of Hinduism, Durban, 1979.